He advocated to fuse all the Jatis into a more global division of Varnas. The first three groups, Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishya have parallels with other Indo-European societies, while the addition of the Shudras is probably a Brahmanical invention from northern India. Nor were jati the building blocks of society. , Starting with the 19th century, the British colonial government passed a series of laws that applied to Indians based on their religion and caste identification. The caste system in Sri Lanka is based on India’s caste system, with the two sharing numerous characteristics. What is a “caste”? , In addition to taking affirmative action for people of schedule castes and scheduled tribes, India has expanded its effort to include people from poor, backward castes in its economic and social mainstream. It is today the basis of affirmative action programmes in India. " The epic then recites a behavioural model for varna, that those who were inclined to anger, pleasures and boldness attained the Kshatriya varna; those who were inclined to cattle rearing and living off the plough attained the Vaishya varna; those who were fond of violence, covetousness and impurity attained the Shudra varna. Whereas the Brahmanical texts speak of the four-fold varna system, the Buddhist texts present an alternative picture of the society, stratified along the lines of jati, kula and occupation. However, the system is not universally practiced in Nepal, with the ethnic indigenous population in the country being a notable exception of the system. The caste system consists of two different concepts, varna and jati, which may be regarded as different levels of analysis of this system. In the context of politically active modern India, where job and school quotas are reserved for affirmative action based on castes, the term has become a sensitive and controversial subject. Each Caste continues in a state of social paralysis, antagonistic and hostile towards the others’ interests, with inter-marriage discouraged if not prohibited. He believed that traditions such as sati, enforced widowhood and child marriage developed from the need to reinforce endogamy and Shastras were used to glorify these practices so that they are observed without being questioned. , Jeaneane Fowler, a professor of philosophy and religious studies, states that it is impossible to determine how and why the jatis came in existence. The texts declare that these sinful, fallen people be ostracised. Since 1950, the country has enacted many laws and social initiatives to protect and improve the socioeconomic conditions of its lower caste population.  A report published in 2001 note that in India 36.3% of people own no land at all, 60.6% own about 15% of the land, with a very wealthy 3.1% owning 15% of the land. Last Modified Date: November 21, 2020. , Vivekananda similarly criticised caste as one of the many human institutions that bars the power of free thought and action of an individual. A recent incident was the 2015 Jat-Dalit violent clashes between the Jats and Dalits, two castes in Rajasthan where four people lost their lives, and 13 sustained serious injuries. The first school focuses on the ideological factors which are claimed to drive the caste system and holds that caste is rooted in the four. The 27 percent reservation is in addition to 22.5 percent set aside for India's lowest castes for last 50 years. 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